The strategic components of Area-based development in the Smart Cities Mission are city
improvement (retrofitting), city renewal (redevelopment) and city extension (greenfield
development) plus a Pan-city initiative in which Smart Solutions are applied covering larger
parts of the city. Below are given the descriptions of the three models of Area-based Smart
Retrofitting will introduce planning in an existing built-up area to achieve Smart City
objectives, along with other objectives, to make the existing area more efficient and liveable.
In retrofitting, an area consisting of more than 500 acres will be identified by the city in
consultation with citizens. Depending on the existing level of infrastructure services in the
identified area and the vision of the residents, the cities will prepare a strategy to become
smart. Since existing structures are largely to remain intact in this model, it is expected that
more intensive infrastructure service levels and a large number of smart applications will be
packed into the retrofitted Smart City. This strategy may also be completed in a shorter time
frame, leading to its replication in another part of the city.
Redevelopment will effect a replacement of the existing built-up environment and enable
co-creation of a new layout with enhanced infrastructure using mixed land use and increased
density. Redevelopment envisages an area of more than 50 acres, identified by Urban Local
Bodies (ULBs) in consultation with citizens. For instance, a new layout plan of the identified area
will be prepared with mixed land-use, higher FSI and high ground coverage. Two examples of
the redevelopment model are the Saifee Burhani Upliftment Project in Mumbai (also called
the Bhendi Bazaar Project) and the redevelopment of East Kidwai Nagar in New Delhi being
undertaken by the National Building Construction Corporation.
Greenfield development will introduce most of the Smart Solutions in a previously vacant
area (more than 250 acres) using innovative planning, plan financing and plan implementation
tools (e.g. land pooling/ land reconstitution) with provision for affordable housing, especially
for the poor. Greenfield developments are required around cities in order to address the needs
of the expanding population. One well known example is the GIFT City in Gujarat. Unlike
retrofitting and redevelopment, greenfield developments could be located either within the
limits of the ULB or within the limits of the local Urban Development Authority (UDA).
Pan-city development envisages application of selected Smart Solutions to the existing
city-wide infrastructure. Application of Smart Solutions will involve the use of technology,
information and data to make infrastructure and services better. For example, applying Smart
Solutions in the transport sector (intelligent traffic management system) and reducing average
commute time or cost to citizens will have positive effects on productivity and quality of life of
citizens. Another example can be waste water recycling and smart metering which can make
a substantial contribution to better water management in the city.
The Smart City proposal of each shortlisted city is expected to encapsulate either a retrofitting
or redevelopment or greenfield development model, or a mix thereof and a Pan-city feature
with Smart Solution(s). It is important to note that pan-city is an additional feature to be provided.
Since Smart City is taking a compact area approach, it is necessary that all the city
residents feel there is something in it for them also. Therefore, the additional requirement of
some (at least one) city-wide smart solution has been put in the scheme to make it inclusive.
For North Eastern and Himalayan States, the area proposed to be developed will be one-half of
what is prescribed for any of the alternative models – retrofitting, redevelopment or greenfield